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                Title and Abstract Fields (Metadata)

                This help document explains the format of metadata fields for arXiv submissions — it explains how to fill out the various fields on the web submission form. The possible information fields are:

                Please read our FAQ page "Submissions in languages other than English and multiple language submissions" if your submission is in a language other than English or includes a version in a language other than English.

                Information Fields

                Title: required

                Authors: required

                Abstract: required

                Abstracts are automatically processed into the mailings, so it is important to adhere to the formatting rules. Carriage returns will be stripped unless they are followed by leading white spaces. So if you want a new paragraph or a table of contents, be sure to indent the lines after the carriage return. When the abstracts is formatted for email announcement, it will be wrapped to 80 characters.


                Report-no: required only when supplied by author's institution


                Each arXiv article has a primary category and may also have one or more cross-lists to other categories. The categories control what mailings an article is announced in, and also provide a way to limit searches to subsets of arXiv.

                Some categories have just an archive name, such as hep-th or quant-ph. Others are broken into subject classes to give finer subject granularity:





                Are you an author of this paper?

                Note on La$\TeX$ accent commands:

                Two methods are supported for entering accented characters into arXiv.

                1. If your browser supports Unicode and you have the appropriate input method enabled on your computer, you can type them directly, and they will be converted into their $\TeX$ syntax.
                2. You can enter accented characters using a subset of $\TeX$ syntax. arXiv's subset of $\TeX$ supports many of the ways accented characters can be written in $\TeX$, however, it only accepts characters from ISO Latin 1 (which is a subset of Unicode that can be represented as a single byte in UTF-8).

                Here are the LaTeX accents commands that can be used in the Title and Authors fields.

                Ä   \"Aä   \"aÁ   \'Aá   \'aȦ   \.Aȧ   \.aĀ   \=A
                ā   \=a   \^Aâ   \^aÀ   \`Aà   \`aĄ   \k{A}ą   \k{a}
                Å   \r{A}å   \r{a}Ă   \u{A}ă   \u{a}Ǎ   \v{A}ǎ   \v{a}à  \~A
                ã   \~aĆ   \'Cć   \'cĊ   \.Cċ   \.cĈ   \^Cĉ   \^c
                Ç   \c{C}ç   \c{c}Č   \v{C}č   \v{c}Ď   \v{D}ď   \v{d}Ë   \"E
                ë   \"eÉ   \'Eé   \'eĖ   \.Eė   \.eĒ   \=Eē   \=e
                Ê   \^Eê   \^eÈ   \`Eè   \`eȨ   \c{E}ȩ   \c{e}Ę   \k{E}
                ę   \k{e}Ĕ   \u{E}ĕ   \u{e}Ě   \v{E}ě   \v{e}Ġ   \.Gġ   \.g
                Ĝ   \^Gĝ   \^gĢ   \c{G}ģ   \c{g}Ğ   \u{G}ğ   \u{g}Ǧ   \v{G}
                ǧ   \v{g}Ĥ   \^Hĥ   \^hȞ   \v{H}ȟ   \v{h}Ï   \"Iï   \"i
                Í   \'Ií   \'iİ   \.IĪ   \=Iī   \=iΠ  \^Iî   \^i
                Ì   \`Iì   \`iĮ   \k{I}į   \k{i}Ĭ   \u{I}ĭ   \u{i}Ǐ   \v{I}
                ǐ   \v{i}Ĩ   \~Iĩ   \~iĴ   \^Jĵ   \^jĶ   \c{K}ķ   \c{k}
                Ǩ   \v{K}ǩ   \v{k}Ĺ   \'Lĺ   \'lĻ   \c{L}ļ   \c{l}Ľ   \v{L}
                ľ   \v{l}Ń   \'Nń   \'nŅ   \c{N}ņ   \c{n}Ň   \v{N}ň   \v{n}
                Ñ   \~Nñ   \~nÖ   \"Oö   \"oÓ   \'Oó   \'oȮ   \.O
                ȯ   \.oŌ   \=Oō   \=oÔ   \^Oô   \^oÒ   \`Oò   \`o
                Ő   \H{O}ő   \H{o}Ǫ   \k{O}ǫ   \k{o}Ŏ   \u{O}ŏ   \u{o}Ǒ   \v{O}
                ǒ   \v{o}Õ   \~Oõ   \~oŔ   \'Rŕ   \'rŖ   \c{R}ŗ   \c{r}
                Ř   \v{R}ř   \v{r}Ś   \'Sś   \'sŜ   \^Sŝ   \^sŞ   \c{S}
                ş   \c{s}Š   \v{S}š   \v{s}Ţ   \c{T}ţ   \c{t}Ť   \v{T}ť   \v{t}
                Ü   \"Uü   \"uÚ   \'Uú   \'uŪ   \=Uū   \=uÛ   \^U
                û   \^uÙ   \`Uù   \`uŰ   \H{U}ű   \H{u}Ų   \k{U}ų   \k{u}
                Ů   \r{U}ů   \r{u}Ŭ   \u{U}ŭ   \u{u}Ǔ   \v{U}ǔ   \v{u}Ũ   \~U
                ũ   \~uŴ   \^Wŵ   \^wŸ   \"Yÿ   \"yÝ   \'Yý   \'y
                Ȳ   \=Yȳ   \=yŶ   \^Yŷ   \^yŹ   \'Zź   \'zŻ   \.Z
                ż   \.zŽ   \v{Z}ž   \v{z}å   {\aa}Å   {\AA}æ   {\ae}Æ   {\AE}
                Р  {\DH}ð   {\dh}đ   {\dj} Đ   {\DJ} ð   {\eth} Р  {\ETH} ı   {\i}
                ł   {\I} Ł   {\L} ŋ   {\ng} Ŋ   {\NG} Ø   {\O} ø   {\o} œ   {\oe}
                Œ   {\OE} ß   {\ss} þ   {\th} Þ   {\TH}    


                The following are examples of how correctly completed metadata might appear in plain text email announcements:

                Example 1

                Title: Recent Seminal Results in the Theory of Everything
                  That I Have Been Working on Recently
                Authors: H.Z. Jarvey (Eastern Fundamental Institute)
                Comments: 12 pages, 3 Postscript figures, uses rotate.sty
                Report-no: EFI-94-11
                Journal-ref: Obsc. Unr. Jour. 51 (1994) 87-95
                This paper explains everything about everything, thereby making
                redundant all other papers in the field.  Applications to text
                compression should be obvious.

                Example 2

                Title: An interesting new theorem in algebraic geometry
                Authors: Jane B. Jones, John F. Jones, and Steven Q. Smith
                Comments: AMS-LaTeX v1.2, 24 pages with 3 figures
                Report-no: University of Northern Nowhere preprint UNN-MATH-96-04
                Subj-class: Algebraic Geometry
                MSC-class: 14J30 (Primary); 32H10 (Secondary)
                We extend the results of our previous papers in order to prove some
                well-known conjectures in differentio-algebraic geometric functional