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# Title and Abstract Fields (Metadata)

This help document explains the format of metadata fields for arXiv submissions — it explains how to fill out the various fields on the web submission form. The possible information fields are:

Please read our FAQ page "Submissions in languages other than English and multiple language submissions" if your submission is in a language other than English or includes a version in a language other than English.

## Information Fields

### Title: required

• Do not use all uppercase letters.
• Do not use unicode characters.
• Some La$\TeX$ is supported through MathJax.
• Expand out $\TeX$ macros that are mystifying, e.g. "Nonlinear Sigma Models" instead of "\nlsm".
• Certain $\TeX$ accent commands may be used in this field.

### Authors: required

• In order to automate indexing and searching, it is required that authors to be listed in a canonical format. Names should be given in the order: Firstname Lastname or Firstname Middlename Lastname (where Lastname is your family name).
• Include the names of all authors instead of truncating the list with "et al.". This is necessary to support search and indexing. Multiple author names should be separated with a comma,
        E. L. Grossman, T. Zhou, E. Ben-Naim

or with the word "and",
        Michael Dine, Yosef Nir and Yuri Shirman

• First names and middle names may be abbreviated with just an initial. Initials should be followed by a period and then a space. Do not use all uppercase letters for names.
• Do not enter a name that contains a comma or the word and'. If you must include Jr.' or similar suffix to a name then they must not be separated from the main name by a comma, enter simply Bill Gates Jr or Fred Bloggs IV. Names such as John von Neumann are entered exactly as illustrated.
• Affiliations must be placed within parantheses. Do not enter full mailing addresse, as these are not needed in our metadata. If desired, at most, include a city and country (no zip codes, postal codes, or street addresses). If you have several authors from the same institution, you can use a footnote style for the affiliations. Here is an example (be sure to do it in the form presented here, including all parentheses, and using numbers and not letters):
Authors: Author One (1), Author Two (1 and 2), Author Three (2)
((1) Institution One, (2) Institution Two)

• If the authors constitute a named collaboration, the collaboration name should be used in addition to all authors. Preferred formats are:
Authors: ABCD Collaboration: Author One, Author Two, Author Three

which is taken to mean that the article was written by the ABCD Collaboration which is comprised of Author One, Author Two and Author Three.
Authors: Author One, Author Two, for the ABCD Collaboration

which is taken to mean that the article was written by Author One and Author Two, on behalf of the ABCD Collaboration.
Authors: Author One, Author Two (the ABCD Collaboration)

which is taken to mean that the article was written by Author One and Author Two, who are members of the ABCD Collaboration. This format has the disadvantage that the collaboration name will not be linked to a search.
• Roles — such as editor, or appendix authormay not be indicated within the Authors field, rather roles should be indicated within the Comments field. Their names should be included in the Authors list. Such as:
Authors: Author One, Author Two, Author Three

• Certain $\TeX$ accent commands may be used in this field.

### Abstract: required

Abstracts are automatically processed into the mailings, so it is important to adhere to the formatting rules. Carriage returns will be stripped unless they are followed by leading white spaces. So if you want a new paragraph or a table of contents, be sure to indent the lines after the carriage return. When the abstracts is formatted for email announcement, it will be wrapped to 80 characters.

• Do not include the word "Abstract".
• Some $\TeX$ commands are supported via MathJax.
• As with the title, expand out opaque $\TeX$ macros. Including $\TeX$ formatting commands such as ~ \, (backslash comma) and \ (backslash space) makes it difficult for people to read. Please omit these TeX-isms. Also omit font commands such as \em or \it, as these will not be processed into the display. Additionally, $\TeX$ formtting commands for names will not be processed, and unicode character entry is not supported.
• Do not start lines with whitespace (spaces, tabs, etc.) unless you are trying to prevent our automatic line wrapping. You might choose to use leading whitespace if for example your abstract is a table of contents. Avoid unnecessary blank lines.
• Keep it short — abstracts longer than 1920 characters will not be accepted; abridge your abstract if necessary.

• Indicate number of pages and number of figures. If desired, include $\TeX$ flavor or related comments. Note however, that MathJax is not enabled for this field.
• Anonymous FTP and World Wide Web locations should be given in the standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) format. We automatically convert these into an active link reading "this ftp URL" and an http URL into a link reading "this http URL" (try for a grammatically sensible substitution). The location of related files or information should be given here. Also, you should add a space to separate any periods or text following a URL from the URL itself, so that it is not interpreted as part of the URL. For example, the comment
"for associated mpeg file, see http://myhost.domain/file.mpg"

when accessed via the archive WWW interface views as "for associated mpeg file, see <this URL>" .
• References to other articles in other archives should be given in the standard arXiv:arch-ive/YYMMNNN or arXiv:YYMM.NNNN(N) format so that our Web interface can turn the reference into a link to the article's abstract.
• This is the proper field for "to be published in" or "submitted to" information, including inclusion in conference proceedings. Please note that such entries will be frozen into this version, and is not editable after announcement.
• This is the proper field for author roles, such as "Appendix by" or "Editor" information.
• If this is a replacement, indicate the nature of the replacement and the severity of the changes so readers will know why it was replaced. You may with to still include your original comments (e.g. number of pages), because the comments field is not cumulative.

### Report-no: required only when supplied by author's institution

• Enter your institution's locally assigned publication number.
• Do not put any other information in this field.
• Example: Report-no: EFI-94-11.

### Category:

Each arXiv article has a primary category and may also have one or more cross-lists to other categories. The categories control what mailings an article is announced in, and also provide a way to limit searches to subsets of arXiv.

Some categories have just an archive name, such as hep-th or quant-ph. Others are broken into subject classes to give finer subject granularity:

### Journal-ref:

• This field is only for a full bibliographic reference if the article has already appeared in a journal or a proceedings.
• Indicate the volume number, year, and page number (or page range).
• If your submission has not appeared yet, but you would still like to indicate where it will be published, use the Comments: field. Please note that the Comments field can only be updated by submitting a replacement.
• If there are multiple full bibliographic references associated with the paper, for example the original and an erratum, then separate them with a semicolon and a space, e.g.
J.Hasty Results 1 (2008) 1-9; Erratum: J.Hasty Results 2 (2008) 1-2
• In most cases, submissions are not yet published, and so Journal-ref information is not available. A facility is provided for you to add a journal reference to your previously submitted article at a later date.
• Do not put URLs into this field, as they will not be converted into links.

### DOI:

• This field is only for a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) that resolves (links) to another version of the article, in a journal for example.
• DOIs have the form 10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00405-9
• If there are multiple DOIs associated with an article, separate them with a space.
• Do not include any other information in this field. In most cases, submissions are not yet published, and so DOI information will be added by the author at a later date. A facility is provided for adding a Journal-ref and DOI to a previously submitted article.

### MSC-class:

• For submissions to the math archive, this field is used to indicate the mathematical classification code according to the Mathematics Subject Classification. Here is an example
MSC-class: 14J60 (Primary) 14F05, 14J26 (Secondary)
Put the "Primary" and "Secondary" keywords in parentheses. If there is only a Primary classification, the "Primary" keyword is optional. Separate multiple classification keys with commas.

### ACM-class:

• For submissions to the cs archive, this field is used to indicate the classification code according to the ACM Computing Classification System (or see this overview). Here is an example
ACM-class: F.2.2; I.2.7
(Separate multiple classifications by a semicolon and a space.)

### Are you an author of this paper?

• Although arXiv encourages authors to submit their own articles, some articles may be submitted by third parties (co-workers, administrative assistants, overlay journals, etc.). Prior authorization is required for such submissions. If you are not the author this work you must contact arXiv administrators for permission. Submissions without prior authorization will be removed.
• The submitter of an article is automatically registered as an owner of the article, someone who has authorization to make changes to the article, such as replacing it or adding a cross-reference. Other people can become owners if they supply the paper password, or request ownership. See our authority records help page for more information.
• When someone is registered as an owner of an article, they have a chance to specify if they are also an author — to get all of their rights and privileges, authors of arXiv articles should take ownership of their articles and designate themselves as an author.
• Select yes if you are a listed author of the article you are submitting and no otherwise.

### Note on La$\TeX$ accent commands:

Two methods are supported for entering accented characters into arXiv.

1. If your browser supports Unicode and you have the appropriate input method enabled on your computer, you can type them directly, and they will be converted into their $\TeX$ syntax.
2. You can enter accented characters using a subset of $\TeX$ syntax. arXiv's subset of $\TeX$ supports many of the ways accented characters can be written in $\TeX$, however, it only accepts characters from ISO Latin 1 (which is a subset of Unicode that can be represented as a single byte in UTF-8).

Here are the LaTeX accents commands that can be used in the Title and Authors fields.

 Ä   \"A ä   \"a Á   \'A á   \'a Ȧ   \.A ȧ   \.a Ā   \=A ā   \=a Â   \^A â   \^a À   \A à   \a Ą   \k{A} ą   \k{a} Å   \r{A} å   \r{a} Ă   \u{A} ă   \u{a} Ǎ   \v{A} ǎ   \v{a} Ã   \~A ã   \~a Ć   \'C ć   \'c Ċ   \.C ċ   \.c Ĉ   \^C ĉ   \^c Ç   \c{C} ç   \c{c} Č   \v{C} č   \v{c} Ď   \v{D} ď   \v{d} Ë   \"E ë   \"e É   \'E é   \'e Ė   \.E ė   \.e Ē   \=E ē   \=e Ê   \^E ê   \^e È   \E è   \e Ȩ   \c{E} ȩ   \c{e} Ę   \k{E} ę   \k{e} Ĕ   \u{E} ĕ   \u{e} Ě   \v{E} ě   \v{e} Ġ   \.G ġ   \.g Ĝ   \^G ĝ   \^g Ģ   \c{G} ģ   \c{g} Ğ   \u{G} ğ   \u{g} Ǧ   \v{G} ǧ   \v{g} Ĥ   \^H ĥ   \^h Ȟ   \v{H} ȟ   \v{h} Ï   \"I ï   \"i Í   \'I í   \'i İ   \.I Ī   \=I ī   \=i Î   \^I î   \^i Ì   \I ì   \i Į   \k{I} į   \k{i} Ĭ   \u{I} ĭ   \u{i} Ǐ   \v{I} ǐ   \v{i} Ĩ   \~I ĩ   \~i Ĵ   \^J ĵ   \^j Ķ   \c{K} ķ   \c{k} Ǩ   \v{K} ǩ   \v{k} Ĺ   \'L ĺ   \'l Ļ   \c{L} ļ   \c{l} Ľ   \v{L} ľ   \v{l} Ń   \'N ń   \'n Ņ   \c{N} ņ   \c{n} Ň   \v{N} ň   \v{n} Ñ   \~N ñ   \~n Ö   \"O ö   \"o Ó   \'O ó   \'o Ȯ   \.O ȯ   \.o Ō   \=O ō   \=o Ô   \^O ô   \^o Ò   \O ò   \o Ő   \H{O} ő   \H{o} Ǫ   \k{O} ǫ   \k{o} Ŏ   \u{O} ŏ   \u{o} Ǒ   \v{O} ǒ   \v{o} Õ   \~O õ   \~o Ŕ   \'R ŕ   \'r Ŗ   \c{R} ŗ   \c{r} Ř   \v{R} ř   \v{r} Ś   \'S ś   \'s Ŝ   \^S ŝ   \^s Ş   \c{S} ş   \c{s} Š   \v{S} š   \v{s} Ţ   \c{T} ţ   \c{t} Ť   \v{T} ť   \v{t} Ü   \"U ü   \"u Ú   \'U ú   \'u Ū   \=U ū   \=u Û   \^U û   \^u Ù   \U ù   \u Ű   \H{U} ű   \H{u} Ų   \k{U} ų   \k{u} Ů   \r{U} ů   \r{u} Ŭ   \u{U} ŭ   \u{u} Ǔ   \v{U} ǔ   \v{u} Ũ   \~U ũ   \~u Ŵ   \^W ŵ   \^w Ÿ   \"Y ÿ   \"y Ý   \'Y ý   \'y Ȳ   \=Y ȳ   \=y Ŷ   \^Y ŷ   \^y Ź   \'Z ź   \'z Ż   \.Z ż   \.z Ž   \v{Z} ž   \v{z} å   {\aa} Å   {\AA} æ   {\ae} Æ   {\AE} Ð   {\DH} ð   {\dh} đ   {\dj} Đ   {\DJ} ð   {\eth} Ð   {\ETH} ı   {\i} ł   {\I} Ł   {\L} ŋ   {\ng} Ŋ   {\NG} Ø   {\O} ø   {\o} œ   {\oe} Œ   {\OE} ß   {\ss} þ   {\th} Þ   {\TH}

## Examples

The following are examples of how correctly completed metadata might appear in plain text email announcements:

### Example 1

Title: Recent Seminal Results in the Theory of Everything
That I Have Been Working on Recently
Authors: H.Z. Jarvey (Eastern Fundamental Institute)
Comments: 12 pages, 3 Postscript figures, uses rotate.sty
Report-no: EFI-94-11
Journal-ref: Obsc. Unr. Jour. 51 (1994) 87-95

This paper explains everything about everything, thereby making
redundant all other papers in the field.  Applications to text
compression should be obvious.


### Example 2

Title: An interesting new theorem in algebraic geometry
Authors: Jane B. Jones, John F. Jones, and Steven Q. Smith
Comments: AMS-LaTeX v1.2, 24 pages with 3 figures
Report-no: University of Northern Nowhere preprint UNN-MATH-96-04
Subj-class: Algebraic Geometry
MSC-class: 14J30 (Primary); 32H10 (Secondary)

We extend the results of our previous papers in order to prove some
well-known conjectures in differentio-algebraic geometric functional
analysis.

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